Katekismus Heidelberg Hari Keduabelas: Christ and Christians
Question 31. Why is he called "Christ", that is anointed?
Answer: Because he is ordained of God the Father, and anointed with the Holy Ghost, (a) to be our chief Prophet and Teacher, (b) who has fully revealed to us the secret counsel and will of God concerning our redemption; (c) and to be our only High Priest, (d) who by the one sacrifice of his body, has redeemed us, (e) and makes continual intercession with the Father for us; (f) and also to be our eternal King, who governs us by his word and Spirit, and who defends and preserves us in that salvation, he has purchased for us. (g)
The term “Christ” (Greek: Christos), not part of the name of the Lord, is the title of the Lord, meaning “anointed one” (“Messiah” in Hebrew).
in OT, 3 classes of people who could be called anointed ones:
(1) the prophets, Elisha was anointed by Elijah (1 Kings 19:16);
(2) the priests, Aaron and his sons were anointed by Moses (Ex 28:41)
(3) the kings, Samuel anointed David (1 Samuel 16:13).
Apa makna dari pengurapan? Pilihan dari Tuhan, kuasa / mandat Tuhan atas orang yang diurapi.
The Lord Jesus Christ was the long-expected Messiah who is anointed (not with oil but with the Holy Spirit) into the 3 offices.
(a) Lukas 4:18-19 "Roh Tuhan ada pada-Ku, oleh sebab Ia telah mengurapi Aku, untuk menyampaikan kabar baik kepada orang-orang miskin; dan Ia telah mengutus Aku untuk memberitakan pembebasan kepada orang-orang tawanan, dan penglihatan bagi orang-orang buta, untuk membebaskan orang-orang yang tertindas, untuk memberitakan tahun rahmat Tuhan telah datang."
Such is the distinction pointed out by Calvin and has since been adopted by the Protestant church.
1st office: Prophet = Teacher
(b) Kis 3:22 Bukankah telah dikatakan Musa: Tuhan Allah akan membangkitkan bagimu seorang nabi dari antara saudara-saudaramu, sama seperti aku: Dengarkanlah dia dalam segala sesuatu yang akan dikatakannya kepadamu. (Peter’s sermon, applying passage from Deut. to Jesus)
What are the tasks of the prophet in OT?
In the Old Testament times a prophet proclaimed the Word of God and explained it to the people.
Christ : 1. through his own person is the revelation of God the Father to us, 2. revealed Word of God during his ministry and now 3. the Bible => fulfill our spiritual needs: we did not know and did not understand.
2nd office: Priest
(d) Maz.110:4 TUHAN telah bersumpah, dan Ia tidak akan menyesal: "Engkau adalah imam untuk selama-lamanya, menurut Melkisedek."
What are the tasks of the priest in OT?
- he offered a lamb or some other clean animal,
- he made intercessory prayer for the people.
The catechism calls Christ the only High Priest. Why is that?
1. Christ is Priest and sacrificial Lamb at the same time: he offers himself up as a sacrifice. After His offer on the cross no more animals had to be offered.
Why is there no chair to be found in the Jewish temple? signifying that the work of the priests was never done. Compare with (e) Ibr. 10:12-14 Tetapi Ia, setelah mempersembahkan hanya satu korban saja karena dosa, Ia duduk untuk selama-lamanya di sebelah kanan Allah, dan sekarang Ia hanya menantikan saatnya, di mana musuh-musuh-Nya akan dijadikan tumpuan kaki-Nya. Sebab oleh satu korban saja Ia telah menyempurnakan untuk selama-lamanya mereka yang Ia kuduskan.
2. Christ intercedes for us at the right hand of his Father in heaven. (f) Rom.8:33-34 Siapakah yang akan menggugat orang-orang pilihan Allah? Allah, yang membenarkan mereka? Siapakah yang akan menghukum mereka? Kristus Yesus, yang telah mati? Bahkan lebih lagi: yang telah bangkit, yang juga duduk di sebelah kanan Allah, yang malah menjadi Pembela bagi kita?
The intercessory prayers of Christ are always heard: our prayers are heard because of Christ. (Christ guaranteed our right to be heard)
Can non believer (other religion, atheist) pray to God? God does not hear the prayers of non-Christians. What about prayers from little children?
Illustration: a heavenly law firm with us as clients, Jesus presiding over the heavenly branch and the Holy Spirit directing the earthly branch. Each of them pleads for us. The Spirit moves us to pray and to be bold in our prayer. Jesus interprets our prayers aright and based on His sacrifice allows our prayer to go to God the Father, who is our judge (the devil is our accuser).
Example of Jesus interceding for Peter.
3rd office: King
(g) Wahyu 19:16 Dan pada jubah-Nya dan paha-Nya tertulis suatu nama, yaitu: "Raja segala raja dan Tuan di atas segala tuan."
What does a king do?
- he reigns, issues law, governs the country
- he protects the people against all enemies.
Jesus governs us by his word and spirit. We are not autonomous after our conversion (receive Christ as Savior and Lord). Christ is our Lord. He provides proper and loving ruling over us within the church => fulfills our need for spiritual discipline, guidance and rule.
Jesus defends and preserves us. God's children have three mortal enemies: satan, the world, and their own sinful heart. King Jesus protects His people against these enemies. He safeguards them until they are in their eternal home.
Kingship of Jesus: is it not now but in the future? Is it only in spiritual realm? Is it only to the church alone?
It has come, it is now, and it will be perfected. God’s rule in human history, in individual soul of human, in the church, and a future coming kingdom. Illustrations from the parables: Matt 13 farmer that sow seeds, conclusion: only part of the preaching effort will bear fruit => against the concept that with more preaching advancement, the whole world will be saved. wheat and tares, conclusion: there will always be children of the devil together with children of God in this world until the end of times.
Question 32. But why art thou called a Christian? (a)
Answer: Because I am a member of Christ by faith, (b) and thus am partaker of his anointing; (c) that so I may confess his name, (d) and present myself a living sacrifice of thankfulness to him: (e) and also that with a free and good conscience I may fight against sin and Satan in this life (f) and afterwards I reign with him eternally, over all creatures. (g)
(a) Kis 11:26 Mereka tinggal bersama-sama dengan jemaat itu satu tahun lamanya, sambil mengajar banyak orang. Di Antiokhialah murid-murid itu untuk pertama kalinya disebut Kristen.
This name was accepted as a name of honor, and it still is today. It serves to identify those who are followers of Christ or in the words of the catechism: we are members of Christ by faith and therefore are partakers of His anointing.
(b) 1 Kor.6:15 Tidak tahukah kamu, bahwa tubuhmu adalah anggota Kristus? Akan kuambilkah anggota Kristus untuk menyerahkannya kepada percabulan? Sekali-kali tidak!
A person is not a real Christian because he is baptized and a member of a Christian church. A person is a true Christian only when he is united to Christ by faith and is a partaker of His anointing. It implies that the Holy Spirit dwells in his heart and that he experiences the Spirit's guidance in his life.
3 offices of a Christian: prophet, priest, king
A Christian is a prophet. What are the implications?
(d) Rom.10:10 Karena dengan hati orang percaya dan dibenarkan, dan dengan mulut orang mengaku dan diselamatkan.
Being a prophet shows itself in the confessing of the name of Christ. This means to confess Him, to give testimony, to bear witness, to exhort others, and to point out the way. Every Christian must do this. One does not have to be a missionary, preacher, or elder to do so.
A Christian is a priest. What are the implications?
(e) Rom.12:1 Karena itu, saudara-saudara, demi kemurahan Allah aku menasihatkan kamu, supaya kamu mempersembahkan tubuhmu sebagai persembahan yang hidup, yang kudus dan yang berkenan kepada Allah: itu adalah ibadahmu yang sejati.
A Christian is a priest. This implies that his life is a sacrifice (take after the example from our High Priest). He does not live for himself, but for God and his neighbor.
He has a life of prayer, interceding for work of God and also for his fellow man.
A Christian is a king. What are the implications?
(f) Rom.6:13 Dan janganlah kamu menyerahkan anggota-anggota tubuhmu kepada dosa untuk dipakai sebagai senjata kelaliman, tetapi serahkanlah dirimu kepada Allah sebagai orang-orang, yang dahulu mati, tetapi yang sekarang hidup. Dan serahkanlah anggota-anggota tubuhmu kepada Allah untuk menjadi senjata-senjata kebenaran.
A Christian is a king => follow the example of our king Christ while He was on earth:
1. In the strength of Christ he strives against sin and devil and gains the victory.
2. we reign.
(g) 2 Tim.2:12 jika kita bertekun, kitapun akan ikut memerintah dengan Dia; jika kita menyangkal Dia, Diapun akan menyangkal kita;
Jesus was already a King when He was on earth, but how did He reign? How shall we reign? Not by lording it over one another, for that is not how Jesus exerts his reign among us. Our kingship is expressed, not in privilege, but in responsibility.
3. And one day we may sit with Christ in His throne and be forever king with Him over all creation.